Gender and Visual Images: Looking Back How Stereotypes Are Presented in Textbook

Putri Elbalqis, Muhammad Sayid Wijaya, Rohmatillah Rohmatillah


Abstract. Gender stereotype is concerning traits and roles possessed by females and males which distinguish them from each other. It dominantly gives the ruinous impact and it possibly appears in a textbook. The objective of this research was to analyze gender stereotypes of visual images in When English Rings A Bell published in 2017. This research was in descriptive qualitative research with content analysis design, and used two components of gender schema theory – feminine and masculine traits, and feminine and masculine occupations. Documentation was applied to collect the data. To carry out the data analysis, the researcher referred to the three stages provided by Ary. The results showed that from trait aspect, generally males and females were described in common, but in two points they were showed differently; many female pictures were described with short and curly hair, and several male pictures were depicted with the bangs on their hair. Moreover, lots of females were described with darker skin, while the bright skin was described for lots of male. The occupations aspect revealed that some occupations were only described for male while the occupations; teacher, meal server, biker, hospital work, and the child care activity, were described for both of male and female. Overall, it could be said that gender stereotypes still dominantly appeared in male and female pictures. Additionally, the presentation of male and female picture showed that male pictures were being the majority, with 265 (54.75%) were male pictures, while 219 (45.25%) were female pictures, it meant that male and female were presented unequally in this textbook.


Key words:

gender stereotypes, gender schema theory, visual images, textbook

Full Text:



Abdullah Gharbavi. 2012. “A Content Analysis of Textbooks: Investigating Gender Bias as a Social Prominence in Iranian High School English Textbooks”.English Linguistics Research.Iran :Sciedu Press. 1(1), 42-49.

Albert and Porter. 1998. Children’s Gender-Role Sterotypes: A Sociological Investigation of Psychological Models. Cited in Karasiak, Karie Jo, "Gender Stereotypes in Public School Textbooks in the Dominican Republic" (2010). Master's Theses.

Andreea N, Frans V, and Anton Nijholt. Feminity, Masculinity and Androgyny.Human Media Interaction Group.University of Twente. P.O. Box 7500.Enschede, The Netherlands.

Anja S and Vlasta H. 2015.Gender Stereotype Analysis of the Textbooks for Young Learners. Social and Behavioral Sciences.Slovenia :Procedia - vol :186.

Ary, Donald, 2010. Introduction to Research in Education. Canada : Wadsworth. Eight edition.

Baron, Bettina and Helga Kotthoff. 2001. Gender in Interaction: Perspectives on Femininity and Masculinity in Ethnography and Discourse. Amsterdam : John Benjamins Publishing.

Baxter, Judith. 2018.Women Leaders and Gender Stereotyping in the UK Press.UK : Palgrave Macmillan.

Beauvoir, Simone De. 1956. The Second Sex.London: Lowe and Brydone Ltd

Branscombe, Robert A. Baron Nyla R. 2014.Social Psychology. United States of America : Pearson Education Limited. Thirteenth edition.

Brown, H. D. 2001. Teaching by Principles: An Interactive Approach to Language Pedagogy. New York: Longman.

Caplan, P. J, M. Crawford 1997. Gender Differences in Human Cognition. New York: Oxford University Press.

Celce, Marianne -Murcia Ed. 2001. Teaching English as a Second or Foreign Language. Boston: Heinle and Heinle.Third Edition.

Christine R Starr and Zurbriggen et al. 2016.Sandra Bem’s Gender Schema Theory after 34 Years: A Review of its Reach and Impact.Springer Science and Business Media. New York.

Cunningsworth, Alan. 1995. Choosing Your Coursebook. Oxford : Macmillan Publisher Limited.

Denmark, Florence L. and Michele A. Paludi. 2008. Psychology of Women: A Handbook of Issues and Theories. London :Praeger. Second edition.

Donaghy, Kieran and Daniel Xerri. 2017.“The Image in English Language Teaching. United Kingdom : ELT Council. cited in Fay Van Craeynest. 2015.Gender Representations in EFL Textbooks : A Quantitative and Qualitative Content Analysis”. Unpublished thesis. Faculteit Letteren & Wijsbegeerte.

Fadhila Y and Yan M. 2017.The Representation of Gender in English Textbooks in Indonesia,Language Circle : Journal of Language and Literature. vol 12(1) 91-101.

Harmer, Jeremy. 1991.The Practice of English Language Teaching. New York : Longman. Third Edition.

-------. 2007.How To Teach English. Oxford : Pearson Education Limited. New Edition.

Haryanto Atmowardoyo. 2018. Research Methods in TEFL Studies: Descriptive Research, Case Study, Error Analysis, and R & D. Journal of Language Teaching and Research, Vol. 9, No. 1. pp. 197-204.

Holmes, Janet and Miriam Meyerhoff. 2003.The Handbook of Language and Gender.United Kingdom : Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Huppatz, Kate. 2012. Gender Capital at Work : Intersections of Femininity, Masculinity, Class and Occupation. UK: Palgrave Macmillan.

Krippendorff, Klaus. 2004. Content Analysis : An Introduction to its Methodology. London : Sage publications. Second edition.

Łukasz Pakula and Jane S. 2015. Gender and Sexuality in English Language Education: Focus on Poland. British Council.

Massoud R and Raheleh H. 2011. Textbook Selection and Evaluation in EFL Context. World Journal of Education Vol. 1, No. 2.

Marcin Lewandowski. Gender Stereotyping in EFL Grammar Textbook : A Diachronic Approach,Linguistik Online 68, 6/14.

M. Ali G and Mursid S. 2016. Designing a Model of Research Paper Writing Instructional Materials for Academic Writing Course : Textbook Evaluation.Language Circle: Journal of Language and Literature X/2.

Ni’mal F. 2015.A Textbook Analysis : An in-Depth Analysis of Activities in Scientific Approach’s Perspective in an EFL Textbook for Seventh Grade.Journal of English and Education. Vol 3(2), 51-64.

Nunan, David. 1991.Language Teaching Methodology : A Textbook for Teachers. London : Prentice, Hall.

Salamah, Ummu. 2014. Gender Representation in the English Textbook, A Content Analysis of Bright for Seventh Grade Student Publised by Erlangga. A thesis, Syarif Hidayatullah State Islamic University Jakarta.

Sandra Lipsitz Bem. 1981.Gender Schema Theory: A Cognitive Account of Sex Typing.Psychological Review.Vol. 88, No. 4, 354-364.

Seyed Jalal Abdolmanafi Rokni and Neda Karimi. 2013. Visual Instruction: An Advantage or a Disadvantage? What about its Effect on EFL Learners’ Vocabulary Learning?.Asian Journal of Social Sciences & Humanities.Vol. 2 No. 4.

Shteiwi, M. (2003). Gender Role Stereotypes in Primary School Textbooks in Jordan. DIRASAT, Social and Human Sciences, 30, 90-104.

Swann, William B, 1999.Sexism and Stereotypes in Modern Society.Washington DC : American Psychological Association. The Gender Science of Janet Taylor Spence.

UR, Penny. 1996. A Course in Language Teaching: Practice and Theory. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.

Utomo, I., Anna. R, Utomo, A., Hull, T., McDonald, P., & Son, V. (2015). You Have Got to be Carefully Taught: Attitudes to Gender Roles Among School Children in Indonesia. Paper presented at Population Association of America Annual Meeting, San Diego.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 888 | PDF downloads : 270

Copyright (c) 2020 English Education: Jurnal Tadris Bahasa Inggris

Creative Commons License

English Education: Jurnal Tadris Bahasa Inggris is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. pISSN: 2083-6003, eISSN: 2580-1449.