Karl Theodor Jasper's Godhead Philosophy and Its Relevance for The Development of Religiousity Thought in Indonesia

https://doi.org/10.24042/klm.v12i2.2575

Win Ushuluddin, Al Furqon

Abstract


This paper is aimed at analyzing Jaspers' Godhead philosophy, and finding the relevance of Jaspers’ Godhead philosophy for the development of religiousity thought in Indonesia. The material object of this paper is Jaspers' thought of divinity, and its formal object is philosophy of divine. There are four important terms in Jaspers' Godhead philosophy, namely: Transcendence, cipher, das Umgreifende, and philosophical faith. The terms Transcendence, cipher, das Umgreifende are express that human inability to perceive the true God, while the term ‘philosophical faith’ is the implication of his thinking about the divinity. Jaspers’ divinity thought is relevant to religious life in Indonesia, especially when interpreting the purpose of his philosophy that wants to restore humans to himself, namely: a man who has a clear way of life, so that he understands the meaning of his life. Jaspers' Godhead philosophy can be a criticism for a real effort to improve oneself to be whole and actual human beings; equal before God, despite that heterogeneous and plural fact of human life is a latent necessity, but not a reason for ignoring the existence of others, even attacking others, because heterogeneity and plurality are gift from God. Therefore, everyone is equally required to respect the values and world views of the others, even challenged and should try to understand other cultures and be tolerant to the practice of others.


Keywords


Transcendence; Philosophical Faith; Diversity; Tolerance

Full Text:

PDF

References


Abrari, Hasan. Hakikat Lafadz A.L.L.A.H, Menemukan Rahasia Ketuhanan Melalui Studi Teks Jalalah (Sebuah Kajian Filsafat Sufistik Tentang Lafdzul Jalalah). Surabaya: Pustaka Progresif, 2002.

Ahwani, Ahmad Fuad al-. Filsafat Islam. Edited by Sutardji Calzoum Bachri. Jakarta: Pustaka Firdaus, 1995.

Olson, Alan M. Transcendence and Hermeneutics, an Interpretation of The Philosophy of Karl Jaspers. London: Martinus Nijhoff Publishers, 1979.

Armstrong, Karen. Masa Depan Tuhan: Sanggahan Terhadap Fundamentalisme Dan Ateisme. Translated by Yuliani Liputo. Bandung: Mizan, 2013.

Azra, Azyumardi. “PROLOG.” In Kasus-Kasus Aktual Kehidupan Keagamaan Di Indonesia, edited by Reslawati. Jakarta: Puslitbang Kehidupan Keagamaan, Badan Litbang dan Diklat, Kementerian Agama RI, 2015.

Bagir, Zainal Abidin, Suhadi Cholil, Endy Saputro, Budi Asyhari, and Mustaghfiroh Rahayu. “Laporan Tahunan Kehidupan Beragama Di Indonesia Tahun 2010.” Yogyakarta: Center for Religious and Cross-Cultural Studies (CRCS) Universitas Gadjah Mada, 2011.

Bahri, Zainul Media. Satu Tuhan Banyak Agama, Pandangan Sufistik Ibn ‘Arabi, Rumi Dan Jilli. Bandung: Mizan, 2011.

Bernardien, Win, ed. Dance of God, Tarian Tuhan. Yogyakarta: Apeiron Philotes, 2004.

Bisri, Mustofa. Oase Pemikiran Untuk Pluralitas Bangsa. Yogyakarta: IMPULSE, Kanisius, 2007.

Chittick, William C. The Sufi Path of Knowledge; Ibn Al-‘Arabī’s Metaphysics of Imagination. Albany: State University of New York Press, 1989.

Cholil, Suhadi, Zainal Abidin Bagir, Mustaghfiroh Rahayu, and Budi Asyhari. “Laporan Tahunan Kehidupan Beragama Di Indonesia Tahun 2009.” Yogyakarta: Center for Religious and Cross-Cultural Studies (CRCS) Universitas Gadjah Mada, 2010.

Cochrane, Arthur C. The Existentialists and God: Being and The Being of God in The Thought of Søren Kierkegaard Karl Jasphers, Martin Heidegger, Jean-Paul Sartre, Paul Tillich, Etienne Gilson, Karl Barth. Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1956.

Corbin, Henry. Imajinasi Kreatif Sufisme Ibnu ‘Arabi. Translated by Moh. Khozim and Suhadi. Yogyakarta: LKiS, 2002.

Nichols, David P. “The God of Existentialist Philosophers Fate, Freedom, and the Mystery, in Jaspers.” Existenz, An International Journal in Philosophy, Relegion, Politic, and the Art Vol. 7, no. 2 (Fall 2012): p.36-44.

Hamersma, Harry. Filsafat Eksistensi Karl Jaspers. Jakarta: Gramedia, 1985.

———. Persoalan Ketuhanan Dalam Wacana Filsafat. Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2014.

Hasani, Ismail. Dokumen Kebijakan Penghapusan Diskriminasi Agama/Keyakinan. Jakarta: Pustala Masyarakat Setara, 2011.

Hidayat, Komaruddin. Agama Punya Seribu Nyawa. Jakarta: Noura Books, 2012.

Hidayat, Komaruddin, and Muhammad Wahyudin Nafis. Agama Masa Depan Perspektif Filsafat Perennial. Jakarta: Paramadina, 1995.

Jaspers, Karl Theodor. “Philosophical Autobiography.” In The Phylosophy of Karl Jaspers, translated by Paul Arthur Schilpp and Ludwig B. Lefebre. La Salle, Illionis: Open Court Publishing Company, 1957.

———. Philosophy 1. Translated by E.B. Ashton. Chicago: The University of Chicago Pres, 1969.

———. Philosophy 3. Translated by E.B. Ashton. Chicago: The University of Chicago Press, 1971.

———. “Principles for Philosophizing: Introduction to Philosophical Life’, 1942/43.” In Philosophical Faith and the Future of Humanity., edited by Helmut Wautischer, Alan M. Olson, and Gregory J. Walters. Dordrecht: Springer, 2012.

———. Reason and Existenz. Translated by William Earle. Marquette University. Marquette: 1997, n.d.

———. “Reply to My Critics.” In The Phylosophy of Karl Jaspers, translated by Paul Arthur Schilpp and Ludwig B. Lefebre. La Salle, Illionis: Open Court Publishing Company, 1957.

———. The Origin and Goal of History. Translated by Michael Bullock. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1953.

———. The Perennial Scope of Philosophy. Translated by Ralph Manhein. London: Routledge and Kegan Paul Ltd., 1950.

———. Truth and Symbol. Translated by Jean T. Eilde, William Kluback, and William Kimmel. New York: Twayne Publishers, 1959.

———. Way to Wisdom: An Introduction to Philosophy. New Haven: Yale University Press, 1954.

Kowarzik, Wolfdietrich Schmied. “Philosophy of Revelation: Remark on Schelling, Jaspers, and Rosenzweig.” In Philosophical Faith and the Future of Humanity, edited by Helmut Wautischer, Alan M. Olson, and Gregory Walters. Dordrecht: Springer, 2012.

Langley, Raymond. “Three Interpretation of the Content of Jaspers Philosophical Fait.” In Philosophical Faith and the Future of Humanity, edited by Helmut Wautischer, Alan M. Olson, and Gregory J. Walters. Dordrecht: Springer, 2012.

Lavina, Thelma Z. From Socrates to Sartre: The Philosophic Quest. New York: Bantam Book Inc., 1984.

Lichtigfeld, A. “The God-Concept in Jaspers Philosophy.” In The Philosophy of Karl Jaspers, edited by Paul Arthur Schilpp. La Salle, Illionis: Open Court Publishing Company, 1957.

Peach, Filliz. Death, ‘Deathlessness’, and Existenz in Karl Jaspers’ Philosophy. Edinburgh: Edinburgh University Press, Ltd, 2008.

Pieter, Jeneman, and John A. Titaley. “Hubungan Antar Agama Dalam Kebhinekaan Indonesia: Studi Kasus Terhadap Hubungan Warga Jemaat GPIB Tamansari Pospel Kalimangli Dengan Warga Muslim Di Dusun Kalimangli.” WASKITA, Jurnal Studi Agama Dan Masyarakat Vol 2, no. 2 (2014).

Riyanto, Armada. “Filsafat Divinitas (Keilahian) Atau Teologi.” Jurnal Teologi Volume 04, no. 01 (Mei 2015): p. 57-71.

Salamun, Kurt. “Karl Jaspers Conceptions of the Meaning of Life.” Existenz, An International Journal in Philosophy, Relegion, Politic, and the Art Vol. 1, no. 1–2 (Fall 2006): p.1-8.

Sarin, Indu. “Philosophical Faith: The Savior of Humanity.” In Philosophical Faith and the Future of Humanity, edited by Helmut Wautischer, Alan M. Olson, and Gregory J. Walters. Dordrecht: Springer, 2012.

Schilpp, Paul Arthur, ed. The Philosophy of A.N. Whitehead. La Salle, Illionis: Open Court Publishing Company, 1951.

Tjahjadi, Simon Petrus Lili. Tuhan Para Filsuf Dan Ilmuwan: Dari Descartes Sampai Whitehead. Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2007.

Jisr, Syekh Nadim al-. Kisah Mentjari Tuhan: Uraian Teologis-Filosofis Tentang Wujud Tuhan. Translated by A. Hanafi. Jilid I-II. Jakarta: Bulan Bintang, 1966.

Titaley, John A. Religiositas Di Alenia Tiga, Pluralisme, Nasionalisme Dan Transformasi Agama-Agama. Salatiga: Satya Wacana University Press, 2013.

Tjahjadi, Simon Petrus Lili. Petualangan Intelektual, Konfrontasi Dengan Para Filsuf Dari Zaman Yunani Hingga Zaman Modern. Yogyakarta: Kanisius, 2004.

Waeleruny, Samuel. Membongkar Konspirasi Di Balik Konflik Maluku. Jakarta: Pustaka Obor Indonesia, 2011.

Wenning, Mario. “Chipers of Transcendence and Utopian Potentials Initiating as Conversation between Jaspers and Bloch’ in Jaspers.” Existenz, An International Journal in Philosophy, Relegion, Politic, and the Art Vol. 3, no. 1 (Spring 2008): p.50-57.

Whitehead, Alfred North. Process and Reality. New York: The Free Press, 1979.

Wildermuth, Armin E. “Karl Jasper and the Concept of Philosophical Faith.” Existenz, An International Journal in Philosophy, Relegion, Politic, and the Art Vol. 2, no. 1–2 (Fall 2007): p.8-18.

Ya’qub, Hamzah. Filsafat Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa. Bandung: PT. Al-Ma’arif, 1973.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24042/klm.v12i2.2575

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 258 | PDF downloads : 102

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Creative Commons License

All publications by KALAM [p-ISSN: 0853-9510, e-ISSN: 2540-7759] are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.