Rethinking al-Singkili’s Islamic Cosmology

https://doi.org/10.24042/klm.v15i1.5963

Fuad Mahbub Siraj, Muhammad Syadli

Abstract


The conception of universe has been one of the significant subjects discussed in the Qur'an. Verses of Qur’an have always encouraged human beings to observe and reflect upon on the creation of universe, seen in Islamic teachings as a sign of God's existence and power. Cosmology is a discipline that concerns about the origin of universe. In Islam, this topic has been a heated debate that comes with deeply theological consequences, in terms of tawhid (belief in God). This research is a library research with using a historical approach to obtain data and conducting content analysis. This research aims to explain further the concept of Islamic cosmology of ‘Abd al-Ra’ūf al-Singkili, an Indonesian philosophical sufi master and thinker. Al-Singkili begins his conception of cosmology by focusing on the definition of universe. This study finds out that he defined universe as all things other than al-aqq. Universe is created by Allah as a sign to know His Existence. Al-Singkili stated that the universe was not created from nothing to being (creatio ex nihillo), but rather through an emanation (fay). In explaining the concept of emanation, al-Singkili used two terms, namely "fixed entity" (al-a’yān al-ābitah) and "potential entity" (al-a’yān al-khārijiyyah). Both potentials, according to him, are a shadow of God. The fixed entity is a direct shadow of God, while the potential entity is a shadow of the fixed entity. So, it can be concluded that everything other than God (nature) comes from Him, and its existence depends on the His being.


Keywords


Cosmology; ‘Abd al-Ra’ūf al-Singkili; al-Fayḍ; al-A’yān al-Ṡābitah; al-A’yān al-Khārijiyyah

Full Text:

PDF

References


Al-Ghazali. Tahāfut al-Falāsifah. Edited by. Sulaiman Dunya. Kairo: Dar al-Ma’arif, 1966.

Al-Sinkili, 'Abd al-Ra'uf. Tanbīh al-Mâsyî al-Mansūb ilaā Ṭarīq al-Qusyāsyī. Jakarta: National LIbrary, t.t.

Arif, Ridwan. “The Role of Syaikh Abd al-Ra’uf al-Fansuri In The Reconciliation of Sufism and Shari’ah of 17th Century The Malay World.” Al-Shajarah: Journal of the International Institute of Islamic Thought and Civilization (ISTAC) 23, no. 1 (2018): 45–207.

Armstrong, Karen. Sejarah Tuhan: Kisah Pencarian Tuhan yang Dilakukan oleh Orang-orang Yahudi, Kristen, dan Islam selama 4.000 Tahun. Diterjemahkan oleh Zaimul Am. Bandung: Mizan, 2009.

Azra, Azyumardi. Jaringan Ulama Timur tengah dan Kepulauan Nusantara Abad XVII dan XVIII, Melacak Akar-Akar Pembaruan Islam di Indonesia. Bandung: Mizan, 1994.

Azra, Azyumardi, dan Oman Fathurrahman. “‘Tanbīh al-Māsyī: Otensitas Kepakaran Abdurrauf Singkel.’” Dalam Tanbīh al-Māsyī: Menyoal Wahdatul Wujud Kasus Abdurrauf Singkel di Aceh Abad 17, 16. Bandung: Penerbit Mizan, 1999.

Bahri, Syamsul. “Tasawuf Syaikh 'Abd al-Ra'uf Singkel dan Paham Wujūdiyyah dalam Karyanya Kitab Tanbih al-Māsyi.” Universitas Islam Negeri Syarif Hidayatullah, 2004.

Baiquni, Ahmad. “Konsep-Konsep Kosmologis.” Dalam Konstektualisasi Doktrin Islam dalam Sejarah, disunting oleh Budhi Munawar Rachman, 59. Jakarta: Paramadina, 1994.

Bruinessen, Martin Van. Kitab Kuning Pesantren dan Tarekat: Tradisi-Tradisi Islam di Indonesia. Bandung: Penerbit Mizan, 1995.

Burhanuddin, Nunu, dan Usman Syihab. “Cosmological Dimensions in The Teachings Of The Naqshabandi Sufi Order.” Kalam 13, no. 2 (t.t.): 143–66.

Daly, Peunoh. “Naskah Mir’at al-Thullab Karya cAbd al-Ra’ūf al-Sinkīlī.” Dalam Agama, Budaya, dan Masyarakat, 133. Jakarta: Balitbang Depag RI, 1980.

Fathurrahman, Oman. Tanbīh al-Māsyī: Menyoal Wahdatul Wujud Kasus 'Abdurrauf Singkel di Aceh abad 17. Bandung: Mizan, 1999.

Fuad Mahbub Siraj. “Islamic Theology in The Seventeenth Century Aceh.” Epistemé: Jurnal Pengembangan Ilmu Keislaman 15, no. 1 (2020): 121–43.

Group, Longman. Longman Dictionary of Contemporary English. Great Britain: Longman Limited Group, 1983.

Halimah, Siti. “Analisis Terjemahan ‘Abd al-Ra’ūf al-Singkili dalam Kitab Tanbih al-Āmil fī Tahqīq al-Kalām fī an-Nawāfil.” UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2004.

Mujib, Saiful. “Konsep Tauhid dalam Wahdat Al-Wujud ’Abd Al-Rauf Al-Sinkili.” Universitas Paramadina, 2011.

Murata, Sachiko. The Tao of Islam: Kitab Rujukan tentang Relasi Gender dalam Kosmologi dan Teologi Islam. Diterjemahkan oleh Rahmani Astuti dan M.S. Nasrullah. Bandung: Mizan, 1996.

Nasr, Sayyed Hossein. Science and Civilization in Islam. New York: New American Library, 1970.

Nasution, Harun. Teologi Islam: Sejarah, Analisa dan Perbandingan. Jakarta: UI Press, 1987.

Noer, Kautsar Azhari. Ibn al-‘Arabi: Wahdat al-Wujud dalam Perdebatan. Jakarta: Paramadina, 1995.

Nurjannah, siti. “Kosmologi Dan Sains Dalam Islam.” Akademika: Jurnal Pemikiran Islam 18, no. 1 (2013): 109–22.

Pirani, Felix, dan Christine Roche. Mengenal Alam Semesta. Diterjemahkan oleh Andang L. Parson. Bandung: Mizan, 1997.

Rasyad, Hermansyah, dan Zulkhairi. “TANBĪH AL-MĀSYI AL-MANSŪB ILĀ TARĪQ AL-QUSYASYĪ: Analisis Uslub Bahasa Arab dalam Karya ‘Abd Ar-Rauf As- Singkili.” Jurnal Adabiya 18, no. 35 (2016): 62–82.

Rinkes, Douwe Adolf. Abdoerraoef van Singkel bijdrage tot de Kennis van de mystiek op Sumatra en Java. Heerenveen: Electrische Drukkerij Nieuwsblad van Friesland, “Hepkema,” 1909.

Schimmel, Annemarie. “‘The Primordial Dot: Some Thoughts about Sufi Letter Mysticism.’” Jerusalem Studies in Arabic and Islam (JSAI) 9 (1987).

Shihab, Quraish. Membumikan al-Qur’an. Jakarta: Mizan, 1992.

Siraj, Fuad Mahbub. “Tasauf Dan Kosmologi.” Hipius: Jurnal Ilmu Ushuluddin 2, no. 1 (2014): 53–68.

Windstedt, Sir Richard, dan Yusof, A. Talib. A History of Classical Malay Literature. Selangor: Malaysian Branch Royal Asiatic Society, t.t.

Zaeni, Ahmad. “Mengenal Tafsir Tarjuman Al-Mustafid Karya Abd Al-Rauf Singkel: Analisis terhadab Sumber, Metode dan Corak Tafsir Turjuman al-Mustafid.” UIN Syarif Hidayatullah Jakarta, 2008.

Zar, Sirajuddin. Konsep Penciptaan Alam dalam Pemikiran Islam, Sains dan Al-Qur’an. Jakarta: Rajawali Press, 1997.




DOI: https://doi.org/10.24042/klm.v15i1.5963

Article Metrics

Abstract views : 223 | PDF downloads : 95

Refbacks

  • There are currently no refbacks.




Copyright (c) 2021 KALAM

Creative Commons License
This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.

KALAM [p-ISSN: 0853-9510, e-ISSN: 2540-7759] published by Faculty of Ushuluddin and Religious Study, State Islamic University of Raden Intan Lampung, INDONESIA

Office: Gedung Dekanat Lama Lt. 2, Fakultas Ushuluddin dan Studi Agama, Universitas Islam Negeri Raden Intan Lampung. Jl. Letkol H. Endro Suratmin, Sukarame, Bandar Lampung, Lampung, INDONESIA, KP. 34513. Website: http://ejournal.radenintan.ac.id/index.php/kalam, email: kalam@radenintan.ac.id