The Interactional Features of Billingual Teacher Talk in the Classroom of Arabic as a Foreign Language

Ahmad Basyori, Imam Asrori, Sutaman Sutaman, Bakri Mohamed Bkheet Ahmed


Communication is essential in studying Arabic as a foreign language to make the lesson interactive. This research aimed to identify and assess three aspects. First, the Teacher Talk (TT) interaction feature appeared in the Arabic Education Study Program, Faculty of Tarbiyah and Teacher Training, Raden Intan State Islamic University of Lampung. Second, each lecturer's primary type of TT interaction element. Third, the utilization of code-switching as a component of bilingual learning interactions. This research was a case study of three Arabic lecturers (T1, T2, and T3) who used Google Meets to conduct online learning. Each lecturer was videotaped three times and then examined using Miles and Huberman's qualitative approach. The findings of the L2 investigation demonstrate that 1) T1 produced twelve different types of interaction features. Furthermore, T2 produced eleven different types of interaction features. Finally, T3 produced twelve different types of interaction features. 2) The most dominant TT interaction features in the classrooms by T1 was Scaffolding (18.2 percent), T2 was Display Questions (24.6 percent), and T3 was Confirmation Check (23.1 percent). 3) In the context of bilingual classes, this study also found that L2 lecturers used other interaction features to facilitate interaction, namely code-switching from Arabic (L2) to Indonesian (L1) and vice versa. The total occurrence of code-switching by T1 was 9.1 percent (the least), code-switching by T2 was 27.3 percent, and code-switching by T3 was 63.6 percent (the most dominant). Code-switching can be an excellent alternate approach or interaction tool for facilitating communication in the classroom when learning Arabic; nevertheless, it must be used appropriately and proportionally.


Interactional Features, Teacher Talk, Bilingualism, Codeswitching, Arabic classroom,

Full Text:



Aniwijayanti. (2016). The features of teacher’ s talk of fresh graduated teacher in english intensive class at UIN Sunan Ampel Surabaya. Sate Islamic University of Sunan Ampel.

Aulia, V., & Kuzairi, K. (2020). Analisis teacher talk dan student talk dalam bahasa banjar pada interaksi pembelajaran bahasa inggris. Briliant: Jurnal Riset Dan Konseptual, 5(2), 220.

Brown, A. (2021). Monolingual versus multilingual foreign language teaching: French and Arabic at beginning levels. Language Teaching Research, 136216882199034.

Brown, H. D. (2001). Teaching by principles: An interactive approach to language pedagogy (2nd ed.). Addison Wesley Longman, Inc.

Cazden, C. B. (2001). Classroom discourse: The language of teaching and learning (W. Varner (ed.); second Edi). Heinemann.

Chaer, A., & Agustina, L. (2004). Sosiolinguistik: Perkenalan awal. Rineka Cipta.

Creswell, J. W. (2017). Research design: Qualitative, quantitative, and mixed methods approaches. SAGE Publication, Inc.

Cullen, R. (1998). Teacher talk and the classroom context. English Language Teaching Journal, 25(3), 179–187.

Edwards, A., & Westgate, D. P. G. (2005). Investigating classroom talk. Routledge.

Huriyah, S., & Agustiani, M. (2018). An analysis of English teacher and learner talk in the classroom interaction. Linguistic, English Education and Art (LEEA) Journal, 2(1), 60–71.

Indrastuti. (1997). Alih kode dan campur kode dalam siaran radio: Analisis sosiolinguistik. Humaniora, 5.

Jing, N., & Jing, J. (2018). Teacher Talk in an EFL Classroom: A Pilot Study. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 8(3), 320.

Khamwan, T. (2007). The effects of interactional strategy training on teacher-student interaction in an elf classroom. Suranaree University of Technology.

Khusnaini, N. (2019). The analysis of teacher talk and the characteristic of classroom Interaction in English for young learner. ELT Forum: Journal of English Language Teaching, 8(2), 166–174.

Korkut, P., & Ertaş, A. (2017). The materials mode in the local context of muğla and the role of mother tongue. Universal Journal of Educational Research, 5(2), 270–279.

Kusuma, H., & Nawawi, M. (2018). Istikhdâm uslûb al-ru’ûs al-muraqamah li tarqiyah al-tafâ’ul al-shaffî fî tadrîs al-mufradât. Arabi: Journal of Arabic Studies, 3(2), 240–252.

Lei, X. (2009). Communicative teacher talk in the english classroom. English Language Teaching, 2(1), 75–79.

Lynch, T. (1996). Communication in the language classroom. Oxford University Press.

Mandang, M. (2019). Penggunaan alih kode instruktur dalam proses belajar mengajar bahasa inggris di ELC Education Manado. Kajian Linguistik, 6(2), 55–67.

McCarthy, M. (1991). Discourse analysis for language teachers. Cambridge University Press.

Menegale, M., & Coonan, C. (2008). Expanding teacher-student interaction through more effective classroom questions: from traditional teacher-fronted lessons to student-centred lessons in CLIL. Università Ca’ Foscari Venezia.

Mercer, N. (1995). The guided construction of knowledge: Talk amongst teachers and learners. Multilingual Matters.

Met, M., & Rhodes, N. (1990). Elementary school foreign language instruction-priorities for the 1990s. Foreign Language Annals, 23(5), 433.

Miles, M. B., & Huberman., A. M. (1994). Qualitative data analysis: An expanded sourcebook. Sage Publications.

Murekson. (2017). English Teacher Talk at Senior High School No 1 Payakumbuh. English Language Teaching and Research, I(1), 230–251.

Prastiwi, F. D. (2015). The study of teacher talks used by english course teacher of Pare-Kediri in speaking class. Retain, 3(1), 1–5.

Pujiastuti, R. T. (2013). Classroom interaction: An analysis of teacher talk and student talk in English for young learners (EYL). Journal of English and Education, 1(1), 30–42.

Raihani. (2011). The use of english as a medium of instruction in teaching and learning english at SMA Negeri 2 Bulukumba. Universitas Negeri Malang.

Rohmah, D. W. M. (2006). An analysis of the teacher talk to teach speaking descriptive text to the seventh graders of SMPN 1 Sidoarjo. Retain, 1(3), 1–8.

Sahlim, M. (2018). The functional characteristics of teacher talks in English classroom. Pepatudzu : Media Pendidikan Dan Sosial Kemasyarakatan, 13(2), 133.

Seedhouse, P. (1997). The case of the missing “no”: The relationship between pedagogy and interaction. Language Learninng, A Journal of Reseach in Language Studies, 47(3), 547–583.

Shamsipour, A., & Allami, H. (2012). Teacher talk and learner involvement in efl classroom: The case of iranian setting. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 2(11), 2262–2268.

Siti Astri, Y., Oikurema, P., & Syafi’ul, A. (2020). The use of teacher talk in making students engaged in EFL classroom interaction. Jurnal Education and Development, 8(1), 205–209.

Suryati, N. (2015). Classroom interaction strategies employed by english teachers at lower secondary schools. TEFLIN Journal - A Publication on the Teaching and Learning of English, 26(2), 247.

Tajeddin, Z., & Ghanbar, H. (2016). Discoursal structure of class opening and closing in EFL teachers’ talk: A conversational analytic perspective. Teaching English Language, 10(1), 87–108.

Trisanti, N. (2004). Interactional analysis on the types of repair in an english speaking class. Semarang State University.

Valentika, R., & Yulia, Y. (2020). An analysis of teachers’ classroom interaction by using self-evaluation of teacher talk. Journal of English Language and Pedagogy, 3(1), 41–51.

Walsh, S. (2006). Investigating classroom discourse (First). Routledge.

Walsh, S. (2011). Exploring classroom discourse: Language in action (1st ed.). Routledge.

Walsh, S. (2013). Classroom Discourse and Teacher Development. Edinburgh University Press.

Wasi’ah, N. (2016). A study of teacher talk in classroom interaction at an Islamic Senior High School. OKARA, Journal of Language and Literature, 10(1), 29–43.

Weinreich, U. (2010). Language in contact. De Gruyter Mouton.

Yu, R. (2008). Interaction in EFL classes. Asian Social Science, 4(4), 48–50.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License

Tadris: Jurnal Keguruan dan Ilmu Tarbiyah is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International Licensep-ISSN 2301-7562e-ISSN 2579-7964