The Effect of Principals’ Leadership and Learning Organization on Teachers’ Innovative Work Behavior During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Rais Hidayat, Yuyun Elizabeth Patras


This research explores evidence of the conceptual model related to principals' leadership, learning organization, and teachers' innovative work behavior during the COVID-19 pandemic. This research applied a survey method in which participants employed selections through the purposive sampling technique. There were 1243 respondents in this sample. Subsequently, 1200 were then used to elicit further data. The data collection procedure was carried out online by distributing questionnaires to teachers in Indonesia via the Google Form application. The questionnaire was made based on theoretical studies, expert judgments, and readability assessments, where the analysis of research data employs the so-called path analysis with SMART PLS. The findings of this research evidence the following cases. First, principals' leadership has a positive and significant direct influence on teachers' innovative work behavior. Second, principals' leadership has a positive and significant direct influence on learning organizations. Third, learning organization has a positive and significant direct influence on the teachers' innovative work behavior. Fourth, principals' leadership through learning organization has a positive and significant indirect influence on the teachers' innovative work behavior. These findings support the notion that is improving teachers' innovative work behavior, especially during the COVID-19 pandemic, requires improvement of principals' leadership and the learning organization.


Learning organizations; Principals’ leadership; Teachers' innovative work behaviour

Full Text:



Ahmad, J. (2020). Leadership agility for pandemic covid-19: Study of the principal’s role in implementing “teach from home” policy. International Journal of Advanced Science and Technology, 29(5), 11317–13210.

Ahya, M., Ahmad, S., & Fitriani, Y. (2021). The role of principal and teacher leadership to improve the quality of learning in SMA Negeri 5 OKU. Edunesia : Jurnal Ilmiah Pendidikan, 2(2), 411–423.

Akhmad, S., Haryono, & Fakhrudin. (2014). Pengembangan model supervisi klinis dengan pendekatan lesson study untuk meningkatkan kompetensi profesional guru bahasa inggris SMA Negeri di Kabupaten Cilacap. Journal of Educational Research and Evaluation, 3(1), 7–17.

Akram, T., Lei, S., Haider, M. J., & Hussain, S. T. (2020). The impact of organizational justice on employee innovative work behavior: Mediating role of knowledge sharing. Suma de Negocios, 5(2), 117–129.

Alheet, A. F., Adwan, A. Al, Areiqat, A. Y., Zamil, A. M. A., & Saleh, M. A. (2021). The effect of leadership styles on employees’ innovative work behavior. Management Science Letters, 11(1), 239–246.

Baráth, T. (2015). Learning organization as a tool for better and more effective schools. Procedia Manufacturing, 3, 1494–1502.

Bordeianu, O. (2015). The role of knowledge management and knowledge management strategies within learning organizations. Ecoforum, 4(1), 21.

Brinkman, W.-P. (2009). Design of a questionnaire instrument. In Handbook of Mobile Technology Research Methods. Nova Publishers.

Carmeli, A., Meitar, R., & Weisberg, J. (2006). Self-leadership skills and innovative behavior at work. International Journal of Manpower, 27(1), 75–90.

Choi, W., Kang, S., & Choi, S. B. (2021). Innovative behavior in the workplace: An empirical study of moderated mediation model of self-efficacy, perceived organizational support, and leader–member exchange. Behavioral Science, 11(12), 182.

Connell, J., Carlton, J., Grundy, A., Taylor Buck, E., Keetharuth, A. D., Ricketts, T., Barkham, M., Robotham, D., Rose, D., & Brazier, J. (2018). The importance of content and face validity in instrument development: lessons learnt from service users when developing the recovering quality of life measure (ReQoL). Quality of Life Research, 27(7), 1893–1902.

Dahiya, R., & Raghuvanshi, J. (2022). Validation of innovative work behaviour scale: Indian apparel manufacturing sector. Asia Pacific Management Review, 27(2), 120–136.

Dan, X., Xu, S., Liu, J., Hou, R., Liu, Y., & Ma, H. (2018). Innovative behaviour and career success: Mediating roles of self-efficacy and colleague solidarity of nurses. International Journal of Nursing Sciences, 5(3), 275–280.

Etikan, I., Musa, S. A., & Alkassim, R. S. (2016). Comparison of convenience sampling and purposive sampling. American Journal of Theoretical and Applied Statistics, 5(1), 1.

Faulks, B., Song, Y., Waiganjo, M., Obrenovic, B., & Godinic, D. (2021). Impact of empowering leadership, innovative work, and organizational learning readiness on sustainable economic performance: An empirical study of companies in Russia during the covid-19 pandemic. Sustainability, 13(22), 12465.

Ghazali, N. H. M. (2016). A reliability and validity of an instrument to evaluate the school-based assessment system : A pilot study. International Journal of Evaluation and Research in Education (IJERE), 5(2), 148–157.

Hair, J., Hult, G. T., Ringle, C., & Sarstedt, M. (2017). A Primer on partial least squares structural equation modeling (PLS-SEM). In Sage.

Hamid, R. S., & Anwar, S. M. (2019). Structural equation modeling (SEM) berbasis varian. PT Inkubator Penulis Indonesia.

Hardianto, H., Hidayat, H., & Zulkifli, Z. (2021). Perilaku kerja inovatif bagi guru dan tenaga kependidikan. JPPI (Jurnal Penelitiam Pendidikan Indonesia), 7(1), 112–119.

Harris, A. (2020). COVID-19 - school leadership in crisis? Journal of Professional Capital and Community, 5(3–4), 321–326.

Hosseini, S., & Shirazi, Z. R. H. (2021). Towards teacher innovative work behavior: A conceptual model. Cogent Education, 8(1).

Hussein, A. S. (2015). Penelitian bisnis dan manajemen menggunakan partial least squares (PLS) dengan SmartPLS 3.0. In Universitas Brawijaya (Vol. 1, pp. 1–19).

Hussein, N., Mohamad, A., Noordin, F., & Ishak, N. A. (2014). Learning organization and its effect on organizational performance and organizational innovativeness: A proposed framework for Malaysian public institutions of higher education. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 130, 299–304.

İpek, İ. (2019). Organizational learning in exporting: A bibliometric analysis and critical review of the empirical research. International Business Review, 28(3), 544–559.

Ismiantari, F. D., & Muyana, O. P. (2021). Perbedaan perilaku kerja inovatif pada guru ditinjau dari karakteristik sekolah. Character: Jurnal Penelitian Psikologi, 8(6), 1–12.

Johari, A. B., Wahat, N. W. A., & Zaremohzzabieh, Z. (2021). Innovative work behavior among teachers in Malaysia: The effects of teamwork, principal support, and humor. Asian Journal of University Education, 17(2), 72–84.

Jong, J. De, & Hartog, D. Den. (2010). Measuring innovative work behaviour. Creativity and Innovation Management, 19(1), 23–36.

Joshi, A., Kale, S., Chandel, S., & Pal, D. (2015). Likert scale: Explored and explained. British Journal of Applied Science & Technology, 7(4), 396–403.

Kang, J. H., Matusik, J. G., Kim, T. Y., & Phillips, J. M. (2016). Interactive effects of multiple organizational climates on employee innovative behavior in entrepreneurial firms: A cross-level investigation. Journal of Business Venturing, 31(6), 628–642.

Khaola, P. P., & Oni, F. A. (2020). The influence of school principals’ leadership behaviour and act of fairness on innovative work behaviours amongst teachers. SA Journal of Human Resource Management, 18, 1–8.

Khasanah, I. F. N., & Himam, F. (2019). Kepemimpinan transformasional kepribadian proaktif dan desain kerja sebagai prediktor perilaku kerja inovatif. Gadjah Mada Journal of Psychology, 4(2), 143.

Kızıloğlu, M. (2021). The impact of school principal’s leadership styles on organizational learning: Mediating effect of organizational culture. Business & Management Studies: An International Journal, 9(2), 822–834.

Kör, B., Wakkee, I., & van der Sijde, P. (2021). How to promote managers’ innovative behavior at work: Individual factors and perceptions. Technovation, 99, 102127.

Kovacs, H. (2017). Learning and teaching in innovation: Why it is important for education in 21st century. Neveléstudomány, 5(2), 45–60.

Middleton, L., & Hall, H. (2021). Workplace information literacy: A bridge to the development of innovative work behaviour. In Journal of Documentation (Vol. 77, Issue 6).

Mohamad, M. M., Lisa, N., Sern, L. C., & Mohd, K. (2015). Measuring the validity and reliability of research instruments. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 204, 164–171.

Montani, F., Torres, C., Ferreira, M. C., Mendonça, H., Silva, A. J., Courcy, F., & Dagenais-Desmarais, V. (2021). Self-image goals, compassionate goals and innovative work behavior: The role of organizational support for innovation across countries. Journal of Business Research, 137, 588–600.

Morad, S., Ragonis, N., & Barak, M. (2021). The validity and reliability of a tool for measuring educational innovative thinking competencies. Teaching and Teacher Education, 97, 103193.

Mu, T., Yang, J., Zhang, F., Lyu, C., & Deng, C. (2021). The role of task conflict in cooperative innovation projects: An organizational learning theory perspective. International Journal of Project Management, 39(3), 236–248.

Nalda, F. N., Clavel-San Emeterio, M., Fernández-Ortiz, R., & Arias-Oliva, M. (2020). The strategic influence of school principal leadership in the digital transformation of schools. Computers in Human Behavior, 112, 106481.

Newman, A., Tse, H. H. M., Schwarz, G., & Nielsen, I. (2018). The effects of employees’ creative self-efficacy on innovative behavior: The role of entrepreneurial leadership. Journal of Business Research, 89, 1–9.

Nguyen, D., Pietsch, M., & Gümüş, S. (2021). Collective teacher innovativeness in 48 countries: Effects of teacher autonomy, collaborative culture, and professional learning. Teaching and Teacher Education, 106, 103463.

Nurfatimah, Sukarno, & Rosadi, K. I. (2021). Analysis of the ability of principal in developing policies to maintain education quality in the pandemic covid-19 era. Scientific Research Journal, 8(12), 8–14.

Oliveira, A., Feyzi Behnagh, R., Ni, L., Mohsinah, A. A., Burgess, K. J., & Guo, L. (2019). Emerging technologies as pedagogical tools for teaching and learning science: A literature review. Human Behavior and Emerging Technologies, 1(2), 149–160.

Pandey, A., Gupta, V., & Gupta, R. K. (2019). Spirituality and innovative behaviour in teams: Examining the mediating role of team learning. IIMB Manajemen Review, 31(2), 116–126.

Pangestu, U., & Karwan, D. H. (2021). The role of the principal to increase teacher innovation and creativity during the pandemic. Nidhomul Haq: Jurnal Manajemen Pendidikan Islam, 6(2), 251–266.

Park, Y. K., Song, J. H., Yoon, S. W., & Kim, J. (2014). Learning organization and innovative behavior: The mediating effect of work engagement. European Journal of Training and Development, 38(1–2), 75–94.

Patterson, F., Kerrin, M., & Geraldine, G.-R. (2009). Characteristics and behaviours of innovative people in organisations. In Literature review prepared for the NESTA Policy & Research Unit (pp. 1–63).

Pokhrel, S., & Chhetri, R. (2021). A literature review on impact of COVID-19 pandemic on teaching and learning. Higher Education for the Future, 8(1), 133–141.

Prasetyo, J. (2012). Organisasi pembelajar (learning organization) dalam pencapaian diri perawat RSI Jakarta Cempaka Putih. Jurnal Kesehatan, 2(1), 1–5.

Purwanto, A., Pramono, R., Asbari, M., Hyun, C. C., Wijayanti, L. M., Putri, R. S., & Santoso, P. B. (2020). Studi eksploratif dampak pandemi covid-19 terhadap proses pembelajaran online di sekolah dasar. Journal of Education, Psychology and Counseling, 2(1), 1–12.

Putra, P., Liriwati, F. Y., Tahrim, T., Syafrudin, S., & Aslan, A. (2020). The students learning from home experience during covid-19 school closures policy in Indonesia. Jurnal Iqra’ : Kajian Ilmu Pendidikan, 5(2), 30–42.

Rahmawati, E. (2019). Developing instruments of teacher’s perception of critical thinking in elementary school. Journal of Education and Learning (EduLearn), 13(4), 559–566.

Recepoğlu, E. (2013). Analyzing teachers’ perceptions on learning organizations in terms of different variables. Procedia - Social and Behavioral Sciences, 93, 618–623.

Reese, S. (2018). Approaches to help the practitioner determine “are we a learning organization.” The Learning Organization, 25(5), 362–365.

Resmi, U. D. C., & Hasanah, E. (2020). Best practice leadership of the principal in covid-19 prevention primary school at SD Muhammadiyah Purbayan. Randwick International of Education and Linguistics Science Journal, 1(3), 398–407.

Rivera, L. (2015). Structural equation modelling (SEM): Concepts, apllication and misconceptions (L. Rivera (ed.)). Nova Publishers.

Sange, P. (1990). Peter Senge and the learning organization. Rcuperado De.

Sarwono, J. (2011). Mengenal path analysis: Sejarah, pengertian dan aplikasi. Jurnal Ilmiah Manajemen Bisnis, 11(2), 285–296.

Savitry, N. Z., Sulastiana, M., & Yanuarti, N. (2021). The effects of learning climate on innovative work behavior in digital start-up company. Almana : Jurnal Manajemen Dan Bisnis, 5(1), 47–53.

Schleicher, A. (2017). Transforming education for the next generation: A practical guide to learning and teaching with technology. Santa Clara.

Siahaan, M. (2020). Dampak pandemi covid-19 terhadap dunia pendidikan. Jurnal Kajian Ilmiah, 1(1), 73–80.

Simons, T., Basik, K., & Leroy, H. (2011). Four key steps in developing leader integrity. In Management Education for Integrity: Ethically Educating Tomorrow’s Business Leaders (p. 135). Emerald Group Publishing Limited.

Situmorang, J. R. (2014). Bangunan stratejik organisasi pembelajar. Jurnal Administrasi Bisnis Unpar, 10(2), 1–14.

Skuncikiene, S., Balvociute, R., & Balciunas, S. (2009). Exploring characteristics of a learning organization as learning environment. Social Research, 1(15), 64–76.

Sudibjo, N., & Prameswari, R. K. (2021). The effects of knowledge sharing and person-organization fit on the relationship between transformational leadership on innovative work behavior. Heliyon, 7(6), 7334.

Sulistiowati, S. (2018). Peningkatan perilaku inovatif perajin tenun melalui perilaku berbagi pengetahuan dan efikasi diri. Jurnal Ekonomi Bisnis Dan Kewirausahaan, 7(3), 168.

Sumarjoa, Absrib, & Iqbal, M. (2021). The principal in forming teacher work motivation in the covid-19 pandemic period at senior high school 1 Sigli. Teaching and Learning, 15(5), 721–735.

Tabatabaei, S., & Ghorbi, M. (2014). of learning organization on employees’performance (case study: Economic department of Iran Khodro Company). Kuwait Chapter of Arabian Journal of Business and Management Review, 3(9), 66–78.

Thornton, K. (2021). Principal leadership practices during the covid-19 lockdown. Journal of Educational Leadership, Policy and Practice, 36(1), 22–39.

Walker, M. J. (2021). Teacher leadership in professional development schools. Teacher Development, 25(3), 389–392.

Windiarsih, R., & Etikariena, A. (2018). Hubungan antara kepribadian proaktif dan perilaku kerja inovatif di BUMN X. Journal Psikogenesis, 5(2), 123.

Wu, C., Jong, J. P. J. De, Raasch, C., & Poldervaart, S. (2020). Work process-related lead userness as an antecedent of innovative behavior and user innovation in organizations. Research Policy, 49(6), 103986.

Zohrabi, M. (2013). Mixed method research: Instruments, validity, reliability and reporting findings. Theory and Practice in Language Studies, 3(2), 254–262.


Article Metrics

Abstract views : 267 | PDF downloads : 67


  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License

Tadris: Jurnal Keguruan dan Ilmu Tarbiyah is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License. Copyright © Universitas Islam Negeri Raden Intan Lampung. All rights reservedp-ISSN 2301-7562e-ISSN 2579-7964