Efektivitas dan Kendala Pembelajaran Sains Berbasis Inkuiri terhadap Capaian Dimensi Kognitif Siswa: Meta Analisis

Abdurrahman Abdurrahman

Abstract


In recent, inquiry-based learning is gaining popularity in science curricula, especially for international research and development projects as well as teaching and learning science. One of the underlying reasons is that its success can be significantly improved due to the recent technical developments that allow the inquiry process to be supported by various learning environments including information technology. Inquiry-based learning is often organized into inquiry phases that focused to build students process science skills. However, different variations on what is called the inquiry competence can be found throughout the literature. The current article focuses on identifying and summarizing the core features of inquiry-based learning by means of a systematic literature review and develops a synthesized inquiry process that combines the strengths of existing inquiry-based learning frameworks for enhancing students achievement. The review was conducted using the Web of Science and ERIC (Education Resources Information Center) data base; a total of 15 articles describing inquiry phases or whole inquiry process were selected based on specific search criteria. An analysis of the articles resulted in the identification of five distinct general inquiry phases: Orientation, Conceptualization, Investigation, Discussion and Conclusion. Inquiry-based learning usually ends with the Conclusion phase. Based on analysis almost of the study showed that inquiry-based learning has shown students’ increasing in cognitive achievement significantly.

 

Akhir-akhir ini, pembelajaran berbasis inkuiri semakin populer di kurikulum sains, terutama untuk penelitian dan pengembangan dan pembelajaran sains global. Salah satu alasan utamanya adalah keberhasilannya dalam meningkatkan kompetensi belajar sains siswa secara signifikan, yang perkembangannya saat ini sangat memungkinkan terjadinya proses inkuiri yang didukung oleh berbagai lingkungan belajar termasuk teknologi informasi. Pembelajaran berbasis inkuiri sering disusun dalam fase penyelidikan yang berfokus untuk membangun kemampuan sains bagi para siswa. Namun, variasi yang berbeda mengenai makna kompetensi penyelidikan sering kita temukan di berbagai literatur. Artikel ini berfokus untuk mengidentifikasi dan meringkas fitur inti dari pembelajaran berbasis inkuiri melalui metode meta analisis, mengkaji literatur secara sistematis dan mengembangkan proses penyelidikan yang disintesis dengan menggabungkan kekuatan kerangka kerja pembelajaran berbasis inkuiri yang ada untuk meningkatkan prestasi belajar siswa. Kajian ini dilakukan dengan menggunakan basis data dari Web of Science dan ERIC (Education Resources Information Center); Sebanyak 15 artikel yang menjelaskan tahap penyelidikan atau keseluruhan proses penyelidikan dipilih berdasarkan kriteria pencarian yang spesifik. Analisis terhadap artikel menghasilkan identifikasi lima fase penyelidikan umum yang dapat berbeda secara istilah satu sama lainnya yaitu: Orientasi, Konseptualisasi, Investigasi, Diskusi dan Kesimpulan. Disamping itu, hampir seluruh pembelajaran berbasis inkuiri biasanya berakhir dengan fase Kesimpulan. Berdasarkan analisis di seluruh hasil penelitian menunjukkan bahwa pembelajaran berbasis inkuiri telah berhasil menunjukkan peningkatan penguasaan aspek kognitif siswa secara signifikan.


Keywords


inkuiri; pembelajaran sains; kognitif; meta analisis

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DOI: http://dx.doi.org/10.24042/tadris.v2i1.1206

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