Hukuman Pelaku Penodaan Agama Menurut al-Sunnah Dalam Perspektif Hak Asasi Manusia

Muh. Tasrif


This paper discusses human right and the law of In the Reform Era, the existence of the Republic of Indonesia Presidential Decree No. 1/1965 About Prevention against Blasphemy came into a public debate. Many observers and human rights activists saw that the law is not compatible with the principles of freedom of religion guaranteed by the Constitution of 1945 and human rights. On the contrary, many leaders of Islamic organizations saw that the Law is in accordance with respect for religious freedom. Based on this context, it is interesting to raise questions of how to understand blasphemy in Islam in the perspective of human rights and its implications upon the Law in Indonesia. To answer the questions, I attempt to explain the terms used in conceptualizing actions of blasphemy. The explanation is followed by looking at forms of action of the Prophet Muhammad against perpetrators of blasphemy and interpreting it with the perspective of human rights and its implications upon the law in Indonesia. In this article, it is argued that measures of ignorance, rejection, abuse, and insult against the religion of Islam did not cause the Prophet punish the actors. The Prophet punished the actors based on that the actions had prevented Muslims from practicing their religion.In the perspective of human rights, to express a particular interpretation of religion and to seek support for the interpretation become part of freedom of religion and belief and also part of freedom of speech. For this reason, to put forward an interpretation of any religion can not be punished.


HAM; Penodaan Agama; Hukuman; Nabi Saw

Full Text:



Ahmad bin Muhammad bin Hâsin al-Qurasyiy, Al-Istihzâ’ bi al-Dîn: Ahkâmuh wa Âtsâruh (Jedah, Beirut, Kairo: Dâr Ibn al-Jawziy, 2005).

Akbar Ahmed, “Ibn Khaldun's Understanding of Civilizations and the Dilemmas of Islam and the West Today,” The Middle East Journal; Winter 2002; 56, 1; pg. 20-45.

Alain Cabantous, Blasphemy: Impious Speech in the West from the Seventeenth to the Nineteenth Century (New York: Columbia University Press, 2002).

Ali Muhammad Bhat, “Freedom of Expression from Islamic Perspective,” Journal of Media and Communication Studies, Vol. 6(5), pp. 69-77, May, 2014.

Andrew F. March, “The Maqsad of Hifz al-Dīn: Is Liberal Religious Freedom Sufficient for The Sharīah?” dalam Islam and Civilisational Renewal.

Austin Dacey, The Future of Blasphemy: Speaking of the Sacred in an Age of Human Rights (London, New York: Continuum International Publishing Group, 2012).

Colin Jager, “Crossing the Line: Blasphemy, Time, and Anonymity,” Qui Parle, Spring/Summer 2014 vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 1-30.

David Nash (ed.), Silenced: How Apostasy and Blasphemy Codes are Choking Freedom Worldwide (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 2011).

David Nash, “Analyzing the History of Religious Crime. Models of "Passive" and “Active” Blasphemy since the Medieval Period,” Journal of Social History; Fall 2007; 41, 1; pg. 5-29.

David Nash, Blasphemy in the Christian World: A History (Oxford-New York: Oxford University Press, 2007).

Elliott Visconsi, “The Invention of Criminal Blasphemy: Rex v. Taylor (1676),” Representations; Summer 2008; 103; pg. 30-52.

Febe Armanios; Bogaç Ergene, “A Christian Martyr under Mamluk Justice: The Trials of Salib (d. 1512) according to Coptic and Muslim Sources,” The Muslim World; Jan 2006; 96, 1; pg. 115-144.

Harkness, S Suzan J;Magid, Mohamed;Roberts, Jameka;Richardson, Michael PS, “Crossing the Line? Freedom of Speech and Religious Sensibilities,” Political Science & Politics; Apr 2007; 40, 2; pg. 275-278.

Ian Leigh, “Damned if they do, Damned if they don’t: the European Court of Human Rights and the Protection of Religion from Attack,” Res Publica (2011) 17:55–73

Isaac Levi, “Identity and Conflict,” Social Research; Spring 2007; 74, 1; pg. 25-50.

Jaina C. Sanga, Salman Rushdie's Postcolonial Metaphors: Migration, Translation, Hybridity, Blasphemy, and Globalization (Westport: Greenwood Press, 2001).

Jeffrey Haynes, “Religion, Democracy and Civil Liberties: Theoretical Perspectives and Empirical Ramifications,” European Political Science: 12, 2013; pg.171-182.

John L Esposito, “The Future of Islam and U.S.-Muslim Relations,” Political Science Quarterly; Fall 2011; 126, 3; pg. 365-401.

Joss Marsh, Word Crimes: Blasphemy, Culture, and Literature in Nineteenth-Century England (Chicago and London: University of Chicago Press, 1998).

Leonard A Leo; Felice D Gaer; Elizabeth K Cassidy, “Protecting Religions From "Defamation": A Threat To Universal Human Rights,”Harvard Journal of Law and Public Policy; Spring 2011; 34, 2; pg. 769-784.

Leonard W. Levy, Blasphemy: Verbal Offense Against the Sacred, From Moses to Salmon Rushdie (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1993).

Michael Novak, The Universal Hunger for Liberty: Why the Clash of Civilizations Is Not Inevitable (Basic Books, 2004).

Mohammad Hashim Kamali, Freedom of Expression in Islam (Cambridge, England: Islamic Texts Society, 1997).

Molly Mcgarry, “Base, Vile, and Depraved: Blasphemy and Other Moral Genealogies,” Qui Parle, Spring/Summer 2014 vol. 22, no. 2, pp. 31-56.

Muhammad bin ‘Aliy bin Muhammad al-Ba‘liy al-Hanbaliy, Mukhtasar al-Sârim al-Maslûl ‘alâ Syâtim al-Rasûl li Syaiykh al-Islâm Ibn Taymiyyah (Mekah: Dâr ‘Âlim al-Fawâid, 1422 H).

Noorhaidi Hasan, “Democracy, Religious Diversity, and Blasphemy Law in Indonesia,” Makalah AICIS XIV Balikpapan, 2014.

R. C. van Caenegem, “Historical Reflections on Islam and the Occident,” European Review, Vol. 20, No. 2, 2012, 203–209.

S M Shamsul Alam, “Women in the Era of modernity and Islamic fundamentalism: The case of Taslima Nasrin of Bangladesh,” Signs, Winter 1998; 23, 2; pg. 429-461.

Shemeem Burney Abbas, Pakistan’s Blasphemy Laws: From Islamic Empires to the Taliban (Austin: University of Texas Press, 2013).

Siti Hanna, “Pencegahan Penodaan Agama (Kajian atas UU No. 1 Tahun 1965),” Religia, Vol. 13 No. 2, Oktober 2010, hlm. 157-174.

Syed Farid Alatas, “Contemporary Muslim Revival: The Case of "Protestant Islam",” The Muslim World; Jul 2007; 97, 3; pg. 508-520.

Talal Asad, Wendy Brown, Judith Butler and Saba Mahmood, Is Critique Secular? Blasphemy, Injury, and Free Speech (Berkeley, CA: University of California Press, 2009), 154 pp.

Tarif Khalidi, Images of Muhammad: Narratives of the Prophet in Islam across the Centuries (New York: Doubleday, 2009).

Thomas W Lippman, “The Malaise of Islam,” The SAIS Review of International Affairs; Summer 2006; 26, 2; pg. 183-190.

Tim Penulis CRCS Universitas Gadjah Mada, “Antara ‘Penodaan’ dan ‘Kerukunan’: Makalah Posisi mengenai UU No. 1/PNPS/1965,” Maret 2010.



  • There are currently no refbacks.

Creative Commons License

All publications by KALAM [p-ISSN: 0853-9510, e-ISSN: 2540-7759] are licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-ShareAlike 4.0 International License.